The development trend of automobile lightweighting is a new technological revolution based on reality and focusing on the long-term. In the near term, car weight is one of several key variables in the fuel economy equation. The company's Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard stipulates that the fuel economy of passenger cars by 2025 is (average) 50 miles per gallon. At the same time, it is necessary to encourage more customers to choose cars with better fuel economy. These measures have forced OEMs to take into account various possible factors when considering the fuel economy of current and future models, so that car lightweighting plays an important role in this process.
In the hybrid and electric vehicle markets, lightweight chassis and extreme heavy-duty batteries must be weighed, which is critical because global vehicle production will double in the next 30 years. ExxonMobil expects global personal cars to grow from over 800 million now to more than 1.6 billion by 2040. The company believes that traditional hybrids are big winners, because "full hybrid vehicles" will account for 40% of global autos in 2040, accounting for more than 50% of new car sales in 2040. Some of these cars need to be powered by heavy-duty batteries, so you need to control the weight of the car.
There are many ways to reduce weight in automotive manufacturing, but the top priority of technological innovation is the use of materials. Recently, there has been a tipping point in the industry â€“ the new Ford F-150 aluminum car was introduced last year, and the main raw materials for the car were changed from heavier steel to lighter aluminum. Customers no longer consistently believe that aluminum is a "tin can" material that is not strong enough. Because of the use of aluminum, the weight of the car becomes lighter and lighter. However, after the automotive materials were changed from steel to aluminum, auto parts manufacturers that have used steel in the past have encountered many problems.
"Abandoning steel from aluminum"
Compared to the hard brittleness of steel, aluminum is a "sticky" forgeable material that avoids chipping of parts. However, when using carbide cutting tools, aluminum is prone to built-up edge (BUE), which shortens the life of the cutting tool and exposes the part manufacturer to the flaws in the parts and the risk of generating more scrap. In order to compensate for these deficiencies in aluminum, manufacturers have changed the cutting method. Although many small â€œbiting edgesâ€ (low feed rates) are formed on the workpiece, the processing speed is fast (high cutting speed). This process ensures chip control and avoids built-up problems. However, when approaching the edge of the part, even a low feed/high speed cut does not offset the â€œpushâ€ effect because the cement will push the aluminum away from the edge of the part, creating a burr.
In the case of steel workpieces, high-precision parts manufacturers (such as cylinder heads and engine block manufacturers) are not overly concerned about the occurrence of burrs. However, in the case of aluminum workpieces, in order to avoid the problem of burrs, many manufacturers have started to use special tools. In order to solve the machining problems of aluminum cylinder heads and similar parts, new finished finished tools are being developed.
CoroMill5B90 milling cutter
CoroMill 5B90 milling cutter and aluminum
In the case of finishing cutters, the typical feature is the unique arrangement of the blades at the same diameter, especially when 1 to 2 wiper blades are included. Sandvik Coromant's CoroMill 5B90 milling cutter is a unique and unparalleled product. Each insert pocket is set to the position specified by the tool, with a radial and axial stepped design between each position. Because each insert pocket on the body is machined at a specified feed rate, each cutter is customized for a specific application. The first blade is located at the largest diameter and the second piece is located at a slightly smaller diameter than the first piece. In this way, it is discharged all the way to the end, usually the last blade acts as a wiper. When machining aluminum, this layer-cut design concept ensures a better surface quality while achieving a much higher feed rate than conventional milling cutters.
The CoroMill 5B90 cutter can be replaced with no preset value. In general, when the operator turns or replaces the milling cutter blade, a preset value is required to find the exact position of the blade. If there is one or two wiper blades in the blade, the wiper must be preset to a position slightly higher than the standard blade position, which is equivalent to requiring a longer settling time to optimize the amount of axial runout. However, each CoroMill 5B90 milling cutter has been pre-positioned according to the layer cutting concept. The operator can continue milling by simply replacing the new one, which will undoubtedly shorten the installation time and the feed rate is faster.
Another big advantage of the CoroMill 5B90 milling cutter is the ability to deburr. Automobile manufacturers have long been concerned about burrs or cracks in the edges of parts. When the CoroMill5B90 milling cutter mills the aluminum cylinder head, the tool is milled neatly and even when the feed rate is higher than the normal mill feed rate, the aluminum material is not pushed out and burrs are generated. If the part has no burrs, then the next step is eliminated. Even as a non-standard tool, the CoroMill 5B90 cutter can quickly display its ROI, saving up to 30% per part. The CoroMill 5B90 milling cutter saves money because of the small number of blades used, no presets, and a 66% reduction in installation time. With a wiper blade, the CoroMill 5B90 cutter allows for one pass and roughing and finishing at the same time, eliminating the need for the final finishing process when machining more precise aluminum parts such as cylinder heads.
Adapt to new changes in the automotive industry
Car production is expected to double in less than 30 years, so people are most concerned about the fuel economy of car design. Lightweight vehicles are a strategy that will only become more popular in the future, which means that OEMs and their primary and secondary suppliers need to adopt more practical methods to process aluminum or other lighter metals in the future.
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